Avelar (2011) Effectiveness of aquatic and non-aquatic lower limb muscles endurance training in the static and dynamic balance of elderly people

Introduction to Balance Training in the Elderly

With the global increase in the elderly population due to improved healthcare and reduced birth rates, age-related deterioration in the central nervous system’s capacity to maintain balance has become a significant concern. This decline affects the processing of vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive signals essential for balance, increasing the risk of falls and thereby impacting functional mobility and independence. To counteract this, enhancing sensory information reception through targeted physical exercises has been recognized as a crucial preventive measure against falls.

Study Objectives and Methodology

This study aimed to assess the impact of structured lower-limb muscle endurance training programs, conducted in both aquatic and non-aquatic environments, on the static and dynamic balance of elderly individuals. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was designed, involving 36 elderly participants who were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale, Dynamic Gait Index, gait speed, and tandem gait tests. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: aquatic exercise, non-aquatic exercise, and a control group, with the exercise groups undergoing a six-week training program.

Training Program and Its Effects

The training program focused on lower-limb muscle endurance, consisting of 40-minute sessions held twice a week. The exercises aimed at improving muscle endurance were similar for both aquatic and non-aquatic groups, differing only in the environment. Post-training evaluations showed significant improvements in balance as measured by the Berg Balance Scale and Dynamic Gait Index, indicating the effectiveness of the muscle endurance program in enhancing both static and dynamic balance among elderly participants.

Comparison of Aquatic and Non-Aquatic Training Environments

An interesting aspect of this study was the comparison between aquatic and non-aquatic training environments. While aquatic exercises offer instability through turbulence, enhancing sensory feedback for balance improvement, non-aquatic exercises relate more closely to daily living activities. The study found no significant difference in balance improvement between the two environments, suggesting that the benefits of muscle endurance training on balance are irrespective of the training environment.

Conclusion and Implications for Elderly Balance Training

The study concluded that a structured lower-limb muscle endurance training program significantly improves static and dynamic balance in elderly individuals. This improvement was noted regardless of the training environment, highlighting the versatility of such programs in different settings. The findings advocate for the inclusion of muscle endurance training in the regimen for elderly individuals to mitigate the risk of falls and promote greater independence and functional mobility.

Keywords: hydrotherapy; physical therapy; elderly people.

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