Jara (2019) Aquatic treadmill walking at three depths of water in people with traumatic brain injury

Title: Influence of Water Depth on Gait Training in TBI Patients

Introduction: Aquatic Treadmill Training in TBI Rehabilitation

In this study, we aim to explore the influence of varying water depths (waist, chest, and neck levels) on gait characteristics in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI).


Thirteen TBI participants took part in walking trials, with their gait assessed using underwater motion analysis.

Significant Differences in Gait Variables

Notably, we observed significant differences in spatiotemporal and joint kinematic variables across the three water depth conditions.

Recommendations for Gait Rehabilitation

These findings highlight the potential limitations of neck-deep water for gait training and suggest utilizing water depths ranging from waist to chest level for effective aquatic gait rehabilitation.

Study Limitations and Future Research

Despite these valuable insights, our study had limitations, including a small sample size and missing data on energy expenditure, strength, and ROM. Future research should consider three-dimensional gait analysis and waterproof electromyography for a more comprehensive understanding of aquatic treadmill training.


In conclusion, our study provides essential guidance for optimizing aquatic rehabilitation practices for TBI patients, emphasizing the importance of water depth selection in gait training.


Keyphrase: Aquatic Treadmill Training in TBI Rehabilitation

Keywords: Aquatic treadmill, gait kinematics, partial weight bearing, traumatic brain injury


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