Rewald (2017) Aquatic cycling—What do we know? A scoping review on head-out aquatic cycling

Aquatic Cycling: Fitness and Rehabilitation

Emergence and Evolution

Aquatic cycling, integrating modified bikes in water, has gained traction as a fitness trend. Originating in the 60s, it’s known for simulating weightlessness and aiding rehabilitation.

Overview of Studies

A comprehensive review up to September 2016 included 63 articles. These studies varied in design and focus, broadly categorizing into three groups: comparisons between aquatic and land cycling, diverse aquatic exercise conditions, and specific aquatic cycling programs.

Benefits and Applications

This exercise form uses pedaling against water resistance, improving cardiovascular fitness and strengthening lower limbs. Its low-impact nature, due to water buoyancy, benefits individuals with balance issues or joint pain. However, limited movement variation could affect its functional impact. Despite proven benefits, practical use in clinics is limited due to cost and logistical challenges.

Research Insights and Future Needs

The review highlighted that aquatic cycling’s cardiac demand mirrors land cycling. Notably, only a few studies examined its long-term intervention effects. More research is needed, especially to understand benefits for potential beneficiaries.


To conclude Aquatic cycling presents a unique blend of fitness and therapeutic benefits. Future studies should expand on its cardiovascular effects and practical applications in therapy and exercise regimes.

Keyphrase: Aquatic Cycling in Fitness and Rehabilitation

Keywords: Aquatic Cycling, Fitness, Rehabilitation, Cardiovascular Health, Exercise Equipment, Water-Based Fitness, Muscle Strength, Joint Loading, Balance, Physical Functioning, Therapeutic Exercise, Research Gaps, Clinical Application, Stationary Exercise Bikes, Water Resistance.


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